Remembering the Fallen – Pre-War ODEONs Continued


In my last post, I celebrated the surviving pre-war ODEONs that still operate as cinemas. It therefore seems appropriate, to follow it up with a short tribute to those less fortunate examples of the chain’s rapid 1930s expansion. As mentioned, over 80 of the 140 buildings, commissioned by the ODEON chain have since seen demolition. It would perhaps come as no surprise that many would close, given the onslaught of challenges all early cinemas faced in the second half of the century. The rise of television, video and other forms of home entertainment, combined with new technically superior multiplexes, rendered many pre-war cinemas obsolete by the 1970s. In addition to this, ODEON’s rapid, and at times apparently haphazard expansion, created unnecessary challenges from the word go. The visionary founder Oscar Deutsch was clearly a very astute and unbelievably driven businessman, but appeared to have a weakness for acquiring ‘bargain’ sites for construction. This ultimately led to a raft of ‘super cinemas’ opening in areas, either with an insufficient population to sustain such large enterprises, or where there was a saturation of cinemas already (in a handful of cases, even competing directly with his own!).

Nevertheless, many have been lost, and in the absence of a comprehensive series of blue plaques commemorating their sites (are there any?), it seems fitting to single out a few examples (I’ve chosen 8 personal favourites), give a brief overview, and show you what was built in their place.


On opening in March 1934, the Worthing ODEON was one of the largest and most expensive builds the chain had commissioned to date, costing double that of the smaller venues. Its appearance (like South Harrow the previous year), was a leap forward in British cinema design, pairing a prominent modernist tower with a curved streamline café wing, features, that would become regular elements of the ODEON circuit style going forward. The tower itself boasted an illuminated clock, 8ft across, spelling ODEON THEATRE.

Worthing ODEON (1934) by Whinney, Son & Austin Hall. Image Historic England

Despite stiff competition from three earlier town centre theatres, in addition to the recently opened Plaza, and the nearby Lancing ODEON, Worthing was a huge success for many years. The 1970s saw multiplexing of the auditorium, splitting it into three. Despite sustained popularity, it was closed in 1986 for redevelopment, but was swiftly given grade II listed status by Historic England. A legal battle followed, with the developers eventually claiming victory. The building was demolished in late 1987 and Montague Shopping Centre erected on the site.

Montague Shopping Centre (1987), Worthing. Image Google Street View


Tolworth was one of several early small venues (or village hall ODEONs as I like to call them), built to modest plans. Designed by Yates, Cook & Darbyshire, the cinema was built on a greenfield site, with no obvious demand for such a development. Allen Eyles’ book on the chain reports that, in these early years there were numerous jokes in circulation, ridiculing Oscar for throwing up cinemas in the most unconventional rural locations.

Tolworth ODEON (1934) by Yates, Cook & Darbyshire. Image Historic England. 

It only lasted until 1961, when it was demolished and replaced with Tolworth Tower, a 22 storey mixed use tower designed by Richard Seifert (completed in 1964). The area was clearly not so rural by this point!

Tolworth Tower (1964) by Richard Seifert. Image Google Street View.


The Surbiton ODEON, another example from 1934, was unlike anything else in the chain, and was almost certainly a ‘take over’ project. Built as a theatre, it featured a 12ft deep stage, several dressing rooms, a band room, and lift in the orchestra pit, none of which were standard cinema fare! Both architect, Joseph Hall, and interior designers Mollo & Egan, also had no previous connection with the chain, although they would go on to do further work for Oscar. It was a striking building, both externally and internally, with a curious blend of geometric patterns and semi-abstract vine murals in the foyer. In addition to the tall angular corner windows on either flank of the façade, the canopy sported a huge ODEON sign in a significantly different typeface to the usual octagonal lettering.

Surbiton ODEON (1934) by Joseph Hall. Image Historic England

Built less than a mile from the Kingston ODEON (1933, also now gone), Surbiton was always going to prove challenging to remain viable in the long-term. Nevertheless, it stayed open until 1975, when it was reborn as a carpet showroom. B&Q took over custodianship in 1977, giving DIYers a dose of Art Deco style with every visit for 20 years. Sadly, in 1998 it was demolished and replaced with a Waitrose supermarket, built in a cinema-esque style. The flats either side, contemporary to the cinema, remain.

Waitrose Surbiton (1998). Image Google Street View


Of the many designs realised in this fruitful period, Andrew Mather’s concept for Chingford is surely one of the most unique. The almost cathedral-like exterior possessed a dramatic vertical emphasis, clad in grey & cream terracotta with stylised detailing. Two carved figures adorned the top of the tower, which for my money, looks to be heavily influenced by the Manhattan architecture of the period. Unfortunately, the interior was less inspiring, and far more ‘old fashioned’ than many of Mather’s other examples for the chain.

Chingford ODEON (1935) by Andrew Mather. Image Historic England

After being sold to Classic cinemas in 1967, it was ultimately closed in 1972 and demolished to make way for a mixed retail and residential block. Poundstretcher & PetHut currently occupy the site.

6-8 Cherrydown Avenue, Chingford. Image Google Streetview


Opening on November 16th 1936, Bury ODEON was the only modern cinema in the Lancashire town, and was the chain’s first entirely new cinema in the Manchester area. Its boxy faience clad exterior may not have had the finesse of examples like Chingford, but its striking minimal nature must have caused quite a stir in this traditional industrial town.

Bury ODEON (1936) by Harry Weedon & P. J. Price. Image Historic England

After closing in 1981, the building was used as a nightclub for many years, before being left empty. It was eventually demolished in 2013. As of June 2016, the site was still undeveloped, but directly opposite is a new (2010) VUE multiplex and shopping centre, the exterior of which was clearly influenced by its grandparent.

VUE Multiplex, Bury (2010). Image Google Street View


Opening on 31st July 1937, just five days after, and 1 ½ miles from South Norwood ODEON, Penge was one of a number in the year to feature large quantities of opaque glass on the frontage. Two illuminated towers capped with flag poles stood at either end, adding a considerable dramatic effect.

Penge ODEON (1937) by Andrew Mather. Image Historic England

Closing in 1976, it saw out the remainder of the 70s and 80s as a bingo hall before shutting for good in 1990. 1994 saw a Wetherspoon’s pub, ‘The Moon & Stars’ constructed on the site. It’s worth noting that whatever opinions you have of them, the J. D. Wetherspoon group have converted a number of former cinemas into public houses in recent years, serving as welcome custodians to these old hulks. It’s only a shame that this wasn’t the mind-set when Penge met the demolition ball.

The Moon & Stars Pub, Penge (1994). Image Google Street View 

Canning Town

The Canning Town ODEON has the dubious accolade of having the shortest lifespan of any of the chain’s pre-war constructions. Opening behind schedule in May 1939, Keith P. Roberts’ huge 2240 seater made excellent use of an awkwardly shaped island site, with a curved single height entrance leading to a huge foyer bathed in natural light. The exterior was clad predominantly in cream faience, with a tall ventilation fin capped with a flag pole, towering above the main structure.

canning town
Canning Town ODEON (1939) by Keith P. Roberts. Image Historic England

Situated near the docks, as it was, Canning Town was subjected to a barrage of bombings during the Blitz. The cinema was no exception, being struck on May 11th 1941, and never reopening. The site wasn’t actually fully cleared until 1970, with a block of flats named ODEON Court going up in its place.

canning town 2
ODEON COURT, Canning Town (1970). Image Google Street View


Opening just four days before the country went to war, Hendon was the last new ODEON to be completed until 1950. Designed by Robert Bullivant, the facing was done entirely in brick, a medium put to successful use in Chester & York, but still an unusual choice for the chain (in this case, it was to keep costs down). Smaller than most of the period, featuring a slab tower, curved entrance with splayed fins, and a streamline corner punctured with porthole windows, it was an undeniably pretty building. Unfortunately, the timing of launch was dreadful, with only a fraction of capacity attending the gala launch, buffet and speeches. Five days later, the government approved emergency measures to close every cinema in the country on safety grounds (although this was lifted a short time later).

Hendon (1939) by Robert Bullivant. Image Historic England

Hendon survived unmodified and un-multiplexed until it closed in 1979. It was demolished in 1981 to make way for sheltered accommodation.

Hendon, apartments built 1981. Image Google Street View

The information used to write this post was compiled using a combination of sources including Allen Eyles’ indispensable book ‘ODEON Cinemas 1: Oscar Deutsch Entertains Our Nation’, the excellent Cinema Treasures website, and as always, Google.

If you appreciate this architecture of this period (and are familiar with Worcestershire & the West Midlands), you might well enjoy my new book ‘Streamline Worcestershire’. More information at



Survivors – The Remaining Pre-War ODEON Cinemas.

WESTON-SUPER-MARE (1935) by Thomas Cecil Howett. Photo: Philip Butler 2017

Amongst the wealth of ground-breaking architecture that saw construction across these isles during the 1930s, the cinema must surely be considered to have had the greatest impact. No other type of building could have managed to get away with imposing such outlandish, extravagant and radical exteriors on the average British high street. Whether it was the appeal of the escapism they offered, the allure of the gorgeous charismatic stars projected on the screen, or the fashionable kudos these places bestowed on the locality, they won over both town planners and punters a-like, springing up in their 100s throughout the decade.

Of all the operators, and there were many, ODEON is undoubtedly the chain whose legacy is most enviable. A chain that not only managed to tick all the technical boxes required for a great cinema, but whose founder commissioned some of the most unbelievably modern, daring, and unusual structures ever seen in this country.

The first ODEON opened in 1930 in the Perry Barr area of Birmingham. Designed by Stanley A. Griffiths & Horace G. Bradley, it had a fashionable bright white exterior in a Moorish style, with an elaborate slightly unorthodox interior. Further openings in subsequent years, showed no obvious house style, and arguably little genuine flair, until construction of South Harrow in 1933.


south harrow
South Harrow (1933) by A. P. Starkey. Demolished 1972. Image Historic England


This bold  multipurpose block clad in buff faience tiles, featured integrated retail units and a recessed front wall, up-lit from the entrance canopy. It perhaps doesn’t look that spectacular in light of later designs, but South Harrow set a new benchmark in British cinema design, and paved the way for the ODEON chain’s modern house style.

Despite this early promise,  it would take the appointment of the Birmingham based Harry Weedon Partnership in 1934 to achieve a more consistent approach to the design of the rapidly expanding circuit. For the remainder of the decade, all designs would go through Weedon in one form or another, ultimately yielding a whole estate of masterpieces.

I’ve become somewhat obsessed with the brand of late, and decided to investigate and catalogue a few statistics covering what was built, and what remains in 2017. Below follows a summary of the findings.

Between 1930 & 1939, ODEON opened 258 cinemas (a few early ones didn’t bear the brand name at first, but later adopted it). Of these, 140 were new, purpose built venues, whilst the others consisted of older cinemas and theatres, benefitting from a revamp. From the 140, 83 have been demolished, and a further 7 only have elements remaining; façade, foyer or adjoining café still present, whilst the rest is lost.

That leaves 50 surviving buildings, only 19 of which are still open as cinemas in one capacity or another, the remainder being used as bingo halls, churches, nightclubs, conference centres and retail outlets. It’s also worth noting a further 4 were built, but not opened until after the war (2 survive, 1 as a cinema).

So where are these miraculous survivors I hear you ask? Cue the Led Zeppelin sound bed, here’s the countdown in chronological order, complete with grainy period shots, of all those still functioning as cinemas (images copyright Historic England, but via the excellent Cinema Treasures website).…

BARNET (1935) by Edgar J Simmons
WESTON SUPER MARE (1935) by Thomas Cecil Howett
FAVERSHAM (1936) by Andrew Mather
SCARBOROUGH (1936) by Bullivant, Weedon, Clavering
sutton colefield
SUTTON COLDFIELD (1936) by Harry Weedon & W. Calder Robson
BRIDGWATER (1936) by Thomas Cecil Howett
MUSWELL HILL (1936) by George Coles
BROMLEY (1936) by George Coles
HARROGATE (1936) by Harry Weedon & W. Calder Robson – yes, it’s the same design as Sutton Coldfield
CHESTER (1936) Harry Weedon & Robert Bullivant
STAFFORD (1936) Roland Satchwell
SITTINGBOURNE (1937) by F. C. Mitchell
Odeon, Blossom Street, York, Yorkshire
YORK (1937) by Harry Weedon & Robert Bullivant
 by Harry Weedon & Robert Bullivant
swiss cottage
SWISS COTTAGE (1937) by Basil Herring & Harry Weedon
leicester square
LEICESTER SQUARE (1937) by Andrew Mather & Harry Weedon
BRISTOL (1938) by Thomas Cecil Howett
AYR (1938) by Andrew Mather

east ham
East Ham (1938) by Andrew Mather



WORCESTER (1939, but didn’t open until 1950) by Robert Bullivant

Use them or lose them folks. Support your local original ODEON cinemas (not all are still run by the chain, but all still show films) while you can. Even if the movie is naff, you can sit back and soak up the history!

The statistics used in this post were compiled using a combination of information from Allen Eyles excellent book ‘Odeon Cinemas 1: Oscar Deutsch Entertains Our Nation’, the Cinema Treasures website, and Google.

If you appreciate this era of architecture (and live in or are familiar with Worcestershire & the West Midlands), you might well enjoy my new book ‘Streamline Worcestershire’. More information at



Streamline Worcestershire – Adventures With The Printed Page

Blakedown Rough (1934)

14 months ago, I assigned myself the task of researching and photographing of all of the surviving Art Deco and early modernist architecture in my home county of Worcestershire. The resulting images would then be compiled together into a booklet of some kind, with a few copies printed up for posterity. A nice straightforward achievable project to occupy myself with, when the time presented itself.

At this point my ‘green-horn’ credentials became blindingly obvious. Not only did I underestimate how much work is involved in such a project, but I forgot how obsessive and single-minded I become, once committed to something. And so, for over a year, I devoted pretty much all my spare time, outside of work and family, to what became Streamline Worcestershire.

Northwick, Worcester (1938)

Travelling all over, including areas that were once, but are no longer part of Worcestershire, I visited factories, offices, churches, private homes, shops, cinemas, swimming pools, garages, pubs, hotels, a transmitting centre, a bus stop, a zoo and a water tower. I’ve marvelled at what the county has to offer, with the number, diversity and quality of applicable candidates greatly exceeding my original expectations. Hours vanished while rolling through microfilm at the city library, pouring over stacks of local history books, and scouring the internet for elusive pieces of information. My limited photography skills have also been put to the test, shooting in all manner of weather and light conditions, with the removal of unwanted cars via Photoshop, now a particular speciality. Now this may all sound rather tame, driving to Redditch on a rainy Sunday to find a needle factory not being that impressive, but within my fairly sheltered existence, this was more akin to a Tolkienesque quest!

Former Co-Operative Department Store, Dudley (1939)
tenbury copysm
Regal, Tenbury Wells (1937)
Austin House, Worcester (1939)

After the seemingly endless process of proofreading and fine tuning for print, the manuscript was eventually completed a few weeks back, with a bound proof dropping through my letterbox today (via the excellent bookprintinguk). The little booklet I originally envisioned, has grown to a weighty 168 page full colour hardback tome (not quite ‘coffee table’ specification, but substantial nonetheless).

I can’t quite explain the strange elation, of holding, and leafing through one’s debut printed offering for the first time, it is somewhat unreal. I also get a perverse sense of satisfaction in having executed publication following a DIY punk ethic, taking me back to an industrious youth spent recording and self-releasing material in various noisy bands.    

Evidently, the book is of fairly niche interest, but I’ve received such a wave of positive feedback concerning the project since its inception, I suspect that I’m not the only one, mesmerised by the lesser celebrated structures of this golden age of design.

‘STREAMLINE WORCESTERSHIRE – DISCOVERING THE ART DECO & INTER-WAR MODERNIST ARCHITECTURE OF THE COUNTY’ is a limited print run of 258 copies (the number of ODEON cinemas opened in the UK during founder, Oscar Deutsch’s, lifetime). Available direct here, via Amazon, and through a number of local retailers. OUT NOW. See for more information.

covercontentsinside2inside1A larger selection of images from the book are being featured as part of an ongoing series on the Art Deco Magpie Instagram page #streamlineworcestershire


Assets or Eyesores? Plymouth’s Art Deco Survivors


Old Town Street and Spooner's Corner after the Blitz in 1941.
Plymouth 1941 via


The historic naval city of Plymouth is said to have been one of, if not THE worst, victims of bombing in this country during WWII. In an attempt to obliterate the Royal Docklands at HMRN Davenport, the Luftwaffe relentlessly targeted the area between 1940 and 1944, reducing large areas of Britain’s ‘Ocean City’ to rubble, and taking the lives of 1172 civilians.

Plans for redevelopment were drawn up even before the conflict had concluded, with a bold vision of low density suburban accommodation, paired with a modern zonal city centre. Much of what hadn’t been destroyed by the raids, was cleared to deliver a blank canvas to build from. The result was a coordinated, proportioned, and well laid out city centre fit for the optimistic post-war era, and it still stacks up pretty well to this day.

But what of those pieces of architecture that escaped the explosives and bulldozers? When examples of Plymouth’s pre-war architecture come under threat from development, should their remarkable escape be taken into account, or should sentimentality be put to one side in the name of progress? Personally speaking, I’m too romantically involved with nostalgia to give a sensible unbiased answer, but finding myself in the city with some time to spare, I decided to hunt down some examples of Plymouths Art Deco survivors, several of which are currently under threat.

The Royal Cinema


Opening in July 1938, the Royal Cinema was one of eight city picture houses operating at the outbreak of war, and is the only one still showing films today. Built by the ABC chain, and designed by their in-house architect William Riddle Glen, it possesses a rather odd appearance from certain angles. Approach from the east and the slab-like reconstituted stone façade smoothly dovetails into a curved corner wing (currently painted sky blue), wrapping around the side of the building. Approach from the west however, and the impression is given of said façade, being simply stuck on to the front of the foyer, overhanging the edges in a rather awkward fashion. Since the ‘90’s, a bingo hall has been present in the stalls area, it’s shabby separate entrance lurks off to one side, while the remaining multiplexed circle continues functioning as a cinema (run by the independent REEL chain). Love it or loathe it, the ensemble is an unmistakable slice of Art Deco architecture, and is adored by passionate local film-goers and nostalgic dreamers alike.

Despite this, last year the owners of the site unveiled plans to demolish the building, replacing it with student accommodation. A hard-fought campaign ensued, including a petition with over 5000 signatures supporting retention of the venue. Several attempts have been made to list the cinema over the years, but its interior is too heavily altered to warrant sufficient merit with Historic England. The most recent development in the saga involved the local council listing the building as a community asset, ensuring the public are awarded the right to buy, if the freehold is put on the market. I’ll be following developments closely….


Gaumont Palace

A mere shuffle from The Royal, is the former Gaumont Palace, a much grander structure, also currently in a state of limbo.  Opening in 1931 on the site of an earlier theatre, the Gaumont was the creation of West Country architects Percy Bartlett and William Henry Watkins. Taken over by the ODEON chain in the early 1960s, it was subdivided to include a dance hall, before morphing into a roller disco in 1980 (now there’s a phrase I wish I got to type more often!), seeing out its final days as a nightclub (closing in 2013).


While standing in front of its impressive brick and stone façade, a couple scurried up to me, grinning like Cheshire cats. “Are you from GOD TV”? they asked. When my nonsensical bumbling reply concluded with a “no”, they proceeded to fill me in. Both, it seemed, had ‘wasted’ much of their youth within the building, indulging in one euphoric drug addled rave after another, only later to be saved by the grace of our good lord. God then shone his yellow face upon the tired old Gaumont, forseeing a £multi-million restoration to transform the site into a state of the art prayer centre and studio for the aforementioned Christian channel. Now this all sounds very promising indeed, a number of old cinemas nationwide have been reborn as churches, many receiving a full restoration in the process, but dig a little deeper and concerns start to arise. The initial completion date was set for 2014, then postponed until 2015, before the married directors of GOD TV got themselves caught up in an infidelity scandal. Following a resignation of one, due to “moral failure”, the project is reported to continue with a 2020 launch date. God himself is apparently funding the work, estimated to be between £5-7 million, but donations are, of course, always welcome. Rather worryingly though, no work has apparently taken place to date, not a jot, and the building looks in a rough state. I would be delighted if the scheme came to fruition, but I’m not holding my breath.

Colin Campbell House
Colin Campbell Court, adjacent to the main city shopping area, is a sizable parking lot, surround by a series of run down 1960’s retail and office units. Slap bang in the middle, at a rather awkward angle, stands a potential stunner: Colin Campbell House. Built by E. G. Catchpole, this streamline beauty was constructed in 1938 as a garage and showroom for the Austin Motor Company. They must have been planning on shifting a fair few vehicles, as this four storey complex far outweighs any similar dealerships I’ve encountered from the period. Information is sketchy, and I’ve not been able to uncover how long it fulfilled its original purpose, but in recent years it has served as a Mothercare, Habitat, Chinese supermarket, and now, a discount furniture outlet.


In 2001, an unsuccessful attempt was made to list the building by C20th society, but there are rumblings of second application being put together. The present external condition is utterly depressing, peeling paint, crumbling render, rusting windows, and naff adverts all insult the heritage of the place. A faded Habitat sign (closed in 2011 I believe) protrudes from the pavement, like some aged sentry trying to trick the unsuspecting shopper. Currently open as CFS (not D), only the first two floors are accessible to the public (so I’m told, I didn’t have enough time to explore), and all original internal features have either been covered up or removed.

Having originally signaled it was to be demolished as part of a redevelopment of the whole site, the local council later bowed to public pressure, calling for the building to be retained in the plans. This has subsequently been modified from a requirement, to a merely a suggestion, and the site remains available, should a suitable developer be willing to take it on.


Tinside Lido

Having plumbed the depths of Plymouth’s neglected inter-war structures, I was keen to leave the place on a high by calling in on Ocean City’s crowing jewel, the grade II* listed Tinside Lido. Designed by borough engineer J Wibberly in 1935, Tinside was built in the dream situation for any outdoor pool: on the coast. The large circular pool is literally built into the sea, a swimmable pier if you like. Closed in 1992 due to falling numbers, it remained empty for a decade, before being fully restored, reopening in 2005.


Plans for a swim were put on hold due to the unseasonably cold, windy and wet conditions, but the team were kind enough to let me look around and take some photos.

Entering from the cliff top level, one walks down a sloping covered parade overlooking the pool. A spiral staircase takes you down one storey to the entrance (unless you take the lift from the coast road, it’s a fully accessible pool). After negotiating your way in by purchasing a keyring and post card, you’re met with the most gorgeous stairwell. Lit from above, and in front, by glass bricks, one is transported into the 1930’s by an abundance of period features including azure tiles with red hgihlights, stylised signage, and a sleek bronze banister with geometric railings. I wasn’t allowed into the changing rooms with my camera (why ever not?), but I hear they’re equally special. 

Emerging on the ground floor to the sound of roaring waves, you’re met with a sizable area for sun lounging, a raised walkway, where one might pause, gazing out to the ocean liners yonder, and a glorious fountain in the centre of the pool. The head life guard insisted on cranking said fountain up to maximum, before I commenced shooting, a move that rather perplexed the one swimmer present, who was confined to a lane running right past the darn thing! I just chuckled and adjusted my camera.


Despite the obvious limitation of appeal thanks to the unpredictable British weather, Tinside remains one of Plymouth’s key tourist attractions, drawing in huge numbers each year. With the potential possessed by the other survivors, a real possibility of a 30’s heritage trail, or Art Deco quarter, presents itself. As always though, the small issues of funding and feasibility will probably be the deal breakers. The appetite amongst the community for retention, restoration, and reuse certainly appears to be ravenous though, and god’ll presumably lend a hand with painting a few walls too. Ocean City might well relive the Jazz Age once again!

Plymouth Harbour, Devon. Vintage BR(WR) Travel poster by Harry R


For further information and updates, please visit the following links:

70 images of Plymouth during the Blitz with editorial:

Royal/Reel Cinema:

Gaumount Palace: no dedicated site on the refurbishment, but if desperate…

Colin Cambell House:

Tinside Lido:


Down in a Tube Station at Midday – Charles Holden’s Northern Piccadilly Line Masterpieces


“Why are you all taking photos?… It’s just a station!” barks a baffled commuter, as she carves through our group. It’s understandable I suppose. Millions use London’s underground tube network on a daily basis, reducing the impact of even the most awe inspiring stations to mere pieces of urban monotony, each to be navigated as swiftly and painlessly as possible. For those with open eyes and time to spare however, a multitude of treasures await. For this wasn’t ‘just a station’, it was Arnos Grove, one of Charles Holden’s Piccadilly Line masterpieces.

Taking a 2 1/2 hour rail journey to the big smoke, purely to walk around a selection of tube stations is probably not most people’s idea of an enjoyable Saturday out. But I can’t deny it, I’d been looking forward to this for some time. Oyster in hand, and camera on back, I set out to meet up with Modernism in Metro-land’s Josh, who would guide myself and 24 other architecture, transport and history aficionados, through some of the most iconic English tube stations ever built.

There’s a wealth of information out there on Charles Holden’s work and career, both in printed and digital form, so I’ll refrain from simply regurgitating it all here. To briefly summarise though, in collaboration with Frank Pick, the visionary managing director of the Underground during the inter-war years, Holden introduced modernism to the tube’s built environment. This initially manifested itself through facelifts of existing stations, but ultimately lead to the design of a whole family of structures for the rapidly expanding ‘metro-land’ public transport infrastructure.

Todays tour showcased the final seven stops on the northern arm of the Piccadilly Line, all completed between September 1932 and July 1933 (several of which opened simultaneously). I’ll give brief overviews of each station, and share some choice shots, although the often busy locations and limited time in each, resulted in challenging photographic conditions (at least, that’s my excuse!).

Turnpike Lane

Featuring a large sunken ticket hall set beneath a cubic street level pavilion, Turnpike Lane was apparently Holden’s favourite station. It’s beauty lies in the simplicity of the design, essentially a box with a rectangular ventilation tower, generously fenestrated by huge banks of metal framed windows. Direct access into the station is via two stairways, passing beneath overhanging curved canopies on entry and exit. Originally  part of a civic hub, with co-ordinated bus and tram stations, Turnpike was listed in 1994, years after the trams had ceased to run, and their shelters been demolished. Retail and passenger facilities occupy further buildings, all constructed in much the same style, albeit, rather more curvaceous in form.




Wood Green

Next stop up the line is Wood Green, the only station in this particular run that isn’t a detached building. Its sweeping façade bridges the gap between two C19th buildings, on a corner of a busy intersection. Two ventilation turrets rise up on each corner, originally equal in height, although one has since been extended. Internally many of the original features have long since been removed, some replaced with replicas, others simply falling victim to modernisation. Every station also features bespoke ventilation grilles designed by Harold Stable, each depicting a historical aspect of the site – in this case deer and wildfowl.




Bounds Green

Not every ‘Holden station’ was designed in detail by the man himself, with such a rapid expansion program it simply wouldn’t have been possible. All, I believe were based on concepts and sketches by Holden, that once approved by Pick, would be passed on to other architects to develop and draw up the final plans. Bounds Green is one such example, and is credited to Charles James.

It is unique in the network, being the only station to boast an octagonal ticket hall. Said to be beneficial by, “allowing greater expanses of window to be inserted into the splayed corners”, but more importantly, it just looks pretty darn sexy. Two small kiosks are attached to each outer wall of the station, their curved frontages neatly emerging from the sharp geometric form of the parent building.



Arnos Grove

After a vigorous stroll from Bounds Green (via the delightful Grade II listed Bowes Road Pool & Library), we approach one of the two undeniable architectural icons on this stretch of track; Arnos Grove.

Inspired by the work of Swedish architect Gunnar Aspland, Holden incorporated elements from his design for Stockholm City Library into Arnos Grove. The striking ‘drum on a box’ form of the ticket hall is a triumph of minimalist construction. Something that a passing cyclist felt the need to emphasise by yelling “cylindrical drum” at Josh as he peddled past. The drum in question is huge, towering over the booking hall with one central column supporting its lid-like roof. The original ticket booth (or ‘passometer’) nestles at the base, and now serves as a small museum to the station. Period phone booths, restored some years ago, also remain in situ, their oak by-fold doors securing further exhibits on the buildings history.

Despite its eye catching appearance, Arnos Grove was apparently Frank Pick’s least favourite design, and was only was only approved after a series of drawn out persuasive discussions.




Arriving by train into Southgate you are greeted in a wonderful subterranean environment, illuminated in a warm glow by the original bronze up-lighters. The ticket hall appears to be of similar design to Arnos Grove, only with a considerably lower ceiling. It’s only once you’ve exited and glanced behind you that the penny drops. There’s really no other way I can think to describe it other than a flying saucer. I tend to associate the golden age of science fiction with the atomic era of the late 1950’s and 1960’s, but clearly Holden was way ahead of the curve.


Opening in March 1933, this giant circular station, features a large overhanging canopy, offering weather protection to those window shoppers passing the numerous integrated kiosks. A smaller central cylinder rises up, with continuous glazing following the whole circumference. On top, an illuminating antenna-like mast crowns the fallen UFO, luring the humanoids in.

Like Turnpike Lane, Southgate is a civic hub, with co-ordinated bus shelters and community facilities, all of which neatly circle the mothership.



After the giddy heights of the last three stations, Oakwood (originally Enfield West) is perhaps a little disappointing externally. Another C. H. James building, it follows a fairly simple ‘Sudbury Box’ design (Sudbury Town being the first of several stations to be built in this style). Things improve internally, with a huge double height ticket hall bathed in natural light, two original ticket booths, a wonderful curved shop, and a reinforced concrete ceiling reminiscent of the unhealthy potato grids I occasionally feed my kids.



The terminus on this stretch of line is more intriguing than first impressions would have you believe. At street level, a fairly simple entry building graced with two stumpy towers greets the pedestrian, while a streamlined bus shelter with duel descending stairwells, is present opposite. Had the original plans been realised, the main building would be bookend by two substantial integrated office blocks, and perhaps even a cinema. Ultimately, these were never built, but the true achievement becomes apparent as you descend below ground.

A huge reinforced concrete hanger covers the three platforms extending from the ticket hall. Daylight streams in from overhead skylights, fortified with light from electric globes dangling from the heavens. Could this be the birth of Brutalism in England? I’m not sure, but its a beautiful church-like environment, and a fitting end to marvellous collection of transport structures. Subtle yet grand, minimal yet alive, functional yet beautiful.


If this type of tomfoolery is up your street, I’d highly recommend getting yourself booked onto a future Modernism in Metro-land tour. They are fairly infrequent, and sell out quickly, but are well worth getting involved with. Josh also writes regular articles on his site about… well, Modernism in Metro-land, so do have a read.

For some beautiful period photographs and detailed information on Charles Holden’s work with the London Underground get yourself a copy of ‘Bright Underground Spaces’ by David Lawrence. A gorgeous hardback bible, suitable for coffee tables and bookcases alike.

Bingo, Striptease & Jazz; A Short History of Dudley Hippodrome

IMG_1725smAll over Britain countless former cinemas and theatres lay vacant, slowly deteriorating while a decision on their future is debated.  A select few, largely thanks to pockets of enthusiasts and community groups, get rescued from the wrecking ball, restored and preserved for future generations to enjoy. With a professional, creative and passionate approach, many of these glamorous old structures can still successfully be used for their original purpose. Failing this, it’s often viable to sympathetically modify the building to fulfil new functions, without altering the fabric dramatically.

Alas, many don’t get the opportunity to rise from the ashes. It seems a month rarely passes when I don’t read about another former cinema or theatre being torn down to make way for some architecturally bankrupt, get-rich-quick project. Obviously not every example can, or should be preserved. Some, following years of neglect and vandalism, have succumbed to the elements and deteriorated beyond the point of no return. Others, simply don’t possess the architectural merit or viable business solution to make restoration worthwhile. But those that do, those inspiring examples of Britain’s flamboyant theatrical and cinematic heritage, awaiting the chance to illuminate their neon signs again, should surely be awarded the opportunity.

The Hippodrome in Dudley is one such case in point that, thanks to community pressure, has recently been snatched away from the dreaded demolition gangs. Designed by renowned theatre architect Archibald Hurley Robinson, it replaced the Dudley Opera House, a late Victorian building gutted by fire in 1937. The Hippodrome’s giant curvaceous buff-brick frontage stood directly next door to another Robinson building, the more cubic Plaza Cinema, completed two years earlier. This in turn, was adjacent to the Zoo’s main entrance, and directly opposite the stunning 1937 ODEON Cinema. With four dramatic modernist attractions in such close proximity, all on the main drag into town, Dudley must surely have been the envy of its less pioneering Black Country neighbours.

Plaza & Hippodrome

Completed just prior to Christmas 1938, the Hippodrome threw open its doors with an evening of up-tempo jazz, headlined by the formidable Jack Hylton and his Band. 1939 saw a packed programme of music, theatre and dance, typical of variety theatres during the period. Despite temporary closure during the war, the 1600 seat venue, dubbed ‘The Showplace of the West Midlands’ became a mainstay for major touring theatre and variety performances in the late ‘40s and ‘50s. The annual Christmas pantomime was another big draw, featuring some of the dazzling entertainment stars of the day including Harry Secombe, Derek Roy, Tommy Cooper, Eve Boswell, Beryl Reid and Morecombe & Wise. The golden 1950’s were rounded out with a run of sell out shows by rebellious rock ‘n’ rolling upstart, Cliff Richard.

Dubious management led to a reported decline of quality bookings in the early 1960’s, and with striptease performances and evenings of wrestling not filling the stalls, the Hippodrome changed hands. Re-launching as a casino club, it boasted a combination of bingo during the day, and live performances every night, a format that lasted until 1974, with the late great Roy Orbison, closing out proceedings. From that point on, the Hippodrome concentrated solely on hosting a mixed bill of bingo, bingo and more bingo, a concern that would  actually prove viable for a further 35 years at the venue. Sadly, all good things must come to an end, and in September 2009 the balls would flutter for the last time, as the Hippodrome shut its doors for good.

The Plaza had been demolished in 1997, and thus, plans were made to follow suit with its now decaying neighbour. Had it not been for a group of local enthusiasts led by former college lecturer Geoff Fitzpatrick, this would probably have been the end of the story. The Save Dudley Hippodrome group (later Black Country Hippodrome ltd) collected 35,000 signatures objecting to the demolition of the building, and proposing it be restored and brought back to life in its original guise, a theatre for national and international touring productions.

Geoff Fitzpatrick – photo: Midlands News Express & Star

Sadly, Geoff passed away in 2014 while the fight with the council was ongoing, but the group he helped form continued their quest, and in July 2016 was granted a five year lease to restore and revive the building. The keys were handed over to chairman, Dr Paul Collins in front of a jubilated crowd at a ceremony on the steps of the boarded up venue in December, and the arduous task of raising funds has now begun.

This short video filmed in 2015 by Dr Collins, though not of very high quality, does show the auditorium intact, complete with decorative plaster mouldings on the side walls, circle and ceiling. Further images taken by volunteers show an Aladdin’s cave of period features retained within the building, all ripe for restoration.

Having visited the site a couple of times recently, I can’t help but comment that the scale of the project is mind boggling. The giant brick complex houses a neat collection of graffiti, rooftop weeds, boarded up windows, leaking guttering and missing down pipes that is not a sight for the feint hearted. Look past its current condition though, and the sheer potential the place possesses is astounding. With its prominent location, excellent access, and ample parking, there is no reason why it couldn’t be run as a successful theatre, and to see this gigantic chunk of jazz age construction glowing with neon again, busy with Black Country crowds, would be truly magical.

Artistic impression of a renovated Hippodrome, via the friends Facebook page

For further information and updates on the project, please join, follow, like, contribute to the Black Country Hippodrome’s Facebook page here

Winter in the Southern Sunshine: The Art Deco Magpie Visits Bournemouth

A weeks holiday in mid-November presented the family with an important decision; enjoy a staycation to catch up on the ever growing list of chores, or escape to an exotic location for some much needed recuperation. A vote was taken, with the latter emerging as the surprise victor. Suggested factors for determining the destination included sun, sea, sand, softplay centres, swimming pools, sorbets & interesting architecture, leaving only one genuine candidate; Bournemouth! I’ll admit to there being some surprised, if slightly disappointed faces,  when this news was broken, but upon being shown an official poster guaranteeing ‘Winter Sun in the Southern Sunshine and Warmth of Bournemouth’, I was given the benefit of the doubt.


Being completely out of season, accommodation prices were at rock bottom, and we were able to secure the penthouse ‘Kings Suite’ at the Cumberland Hotel. This turned out to be a wise move as it’s a fascinating old place in a prime spot. Situated on the East Cliff, and surrounded by a myriad of other boarding houses, the Cumberland is perhaps one of the more upmarket lodgings in the area. Built in 1937 as a luxury Jewish Hotel with in-house synagogue, it looks directly out to sea with distant views of the Isle of Wight to the East, and Sandbanks to the West. The hotel no longer has any specific religious leanings, and the synagogue is no more, but otherwise it has managed to survive the last 80 odd years relatively unscathed. The simple white rendered exterior, with stepped facade, black tracers and glass balcony dividers are all in a good state of repair, retaining the same grand presence it had when first built. After dark, residents are treated to a light show as the facade is lit with by ever changing rainbow hue of up-lighters. You can make your own minds up about this, but my 3 year old daughter loved it!



The interior retains some original features, such as the wonderful marble foyer with inlaid monogram and streamline banister rail. Elsewhere the Art Deco theme is continued with appropriate carpets, signage and mirrors. There is perhaps, more than a whiff of naff bling to some of the other interior decor, but I don’t want to be cruel, it proved to be very comfortable, and I’m not here to write a Trip Advisor critique.

I don’t believe I’d ever been to Bournemouth before, and having spent the summer hunting down the lesser spotted inter-war modernist architecture of my home county of Worcestershire (a fairly traditional, semi rural county not known for its progressive structures), it came as a bit of an assault on the senses to see what was on offer on the Dorset coast. Some basic homework had made me aware of the prevalence of Art Deco in the area, but witnessing such a large number of beautiful Jazz Age buildings scattered across this fairly compact town came as quite a pleasant surprise.

The East Cliff, a 1.5 miles stretch rising up from Bournemouth Pier before descending down to meet Boscombe Pier, appears to be the primary area for hotels and coastal apartments.  A veritable pick-and-mix of architectural styles can be found scattered along the front. Some survivors from the golden Edwardian age of the English Riviera still exist, starkly contrasted by the minimal 30’s designs, and totally dwarfed by the towering post war behemoths. Each has its place, and it makes for an interesting stroll.

The tree lined streets running parallel to the front are generally filled with large leafy villas, some with expansive lawns, presumably in a bid to compensate for the lack of sea views. I’ve selected some choice buildings from this area, but alas, I’m unable to tell you anything specific about them at present.

Grove Mansions
Weston Grange
Princes Gate – Post-war, but with an inter-war coastal flavour.

Albany, a 1960’s monster that towers over the seafront.

The town centre surrounds the 3km long Central Gardens that follow the path of the river Bourne, from the North West suburbs, through to the central shopping district and ultimately out to the seafront. This coastal section features some of Bournemouth’s most iconic and well known buildings such as the famous Pavilion (currently wearing scaffolding for restoration work), Odeon cinema, former Ice Skating Rink and of course The Pier. The area was also recently home to a huge Imax leisure complex. Built in 1998 against huge public opposition, later voted Europe’s most hated building, and torn down in 2013.

Bournemouth Pier
Pavilion Clock (1929)
Former Regent Theatre, Odeon since 1986 (1929)
Former Westover Ice Skating Rink and garage (1930)
Former Palace Hotel (1936), now Premier Inn

Further into the town there is a fair bit of redevelopment taking place. Several large new structures were in the midst of being built, while more demolition was taking place on the periphery of the shopping area. It would appear, and come as no surprise, that the casualties were all ’50s-’70s office blocks, no longer in favour with the wider public and easy targets for developers. Thankfully the earlier inter-war style seems to carry more kudos and still plays a key role in the townscape, with many of the retail units still wearing their 1930’s facades with pride.

Rebbeck’s Corner with multiple shops to the front (1936), former Plummer Roddis Department Store (1938) behind.


Former Burton The Tailor
Former 1934 Department Store, now a Wetherspoons Pub


The 1932 grade II listed Bournemouth Echo building by Seal and Hardy is well worth a visit. Once a beacon of the towns’ thriving local press, it was located on the main road into the centre. Thanks to pedestrianisation it now occupies a sleepier cul-de-sac backwater, and is probably better off for it, if now being somewhat overlooked by the average tourist. Only the upper floors are occupied by the Echo presently, while the ground floor is mixed use and semi-vacant.

Heading North-East on foot out of The Square on Christchurch Road you quickly come across George Coles’ pioneering  cinema, retail and apartment block amalgamation. Built in 1937, it provided the modern town dweller with an embarrassment of facilities, perhaps never incorporated into the same single unit before. The cinema, run by Odeon, closed in 1974, with the chain later transferring to the former Regent Theatre nearer the seafront (as above). As so often is the case, its now a bingo house.


Situated directly next door is Beacon House, a small a-symmetric red brick office block with central tower flanked by curved three and four storey wings either side. I’ve not managed to find out a great deal about it presently, other than the original metal framed curved glass windows were replaced with the current UPVC units in the 1990’s. A small consolation, but thankfully the original stairwell glazing has been left well alone.

On a complete tangent, here’s Homelife House aka Avalon. Built in the 1987 this is just one of many chunks of Post-Modern architecture littering the outskirts of the town centre. I’m generally not a huge fan of this era of design, often finding it reminiscent of Lego, with brightly coloured exoskeletons and jarring choices of construction material. This however, is rather attractive (my wife even went as far as to label it ‘beautiful’) and has clearly taken design cues from Jazz Age motifs.

Lastly a few highlights from Boscombe, the coastal village suburb of Bournemouth. Standing right on the promenade is the Neptune Public House, part of the Harvester chain. The building throws up hints of its previous life as The Overstand, an area designed to offer shelter, changing facilities, and refreshments to sun seekers. The original 1930’s elements have been retained, with an interlinking single storey section cutting across the front. This in turn, appears to have had several face-lifts over the years and sports a mixture of different claddings, plastic windows and twee ‘coastal’ touches that are far from endearing.  Beside this sits it’s replacement, a sizable mid-century double storey construction presumably designed to look like a ship (though more ferry than cruise liner). This also had a recent renovation and now wears an eclectic mixture of ceramic and wooden claddings.

Boscombe Pier Pavilion & Kiosks (1958)

Just up the road from Boscombe Pier are these stylish moderne coastal apartments. Some white, some cream, but all looking in a fairly good state of repair and oozing charisma.


If you’re unfamiliar with the area and appreciate good architecture from any era, I’d highly recommend you pay Bournemouth a visit. Yes, there are plenty of stereotypes concerning the place, some of which are true, but put prejudice aside and it’s actually rather nice. Perhaps we were just lucky, but it also seemed to occupy its’ own micro-climate, with air temperatures reaching highs of 18C in Mid-November, a whopping 10C higher than the midlands that week.

Apologies for the lack of information on some of the properties. If anyone is able to fill in any blanks I’d be more than happy to hear from you.

And to close.. I couldn’t resist including this little honey!

Roundhouse Hotel (1960s)

Recent English Architecture 1920-1940 – Then & Now

I was recently fortunate enough to pick up a copy of marvellous book entitled ‘Recent English Architecture 1920-1940’. Its a small hard back compendium, published by Country Life in 1947, containing 63 of  images of English architectural highlights from the inter-war years. Selected by the Architecture Club, it served as an epitaph to the groundbreaking design from this era, and heralded the start of a new one in a post-war Britain.img_1035

The photographs show each of the buildings, some iconic, some less well known, at their best. Each freshly completed and free from the ravages of ‘modernisation’ and general weathering. I initially decided to reproduce the book in blog form, simply to share these striking images, then curiosity got the better of me. How many of these structures still exist, and to what extent have they been altered? Below is a selection of my personal highlights from the book, with a modern comparison from various credited sources (if you own the copyright to any of these photos and would like me to remove them, i am happy to do so).

#7 Town Hall (aka Meridian House), Greenwich by Culpin and Son (1939)
Image courtesy of Google Streetview
#8 Town Hall, Dagenham by E. Berry Webber (1937)
Image courtesy of WIkipedia commons. 
#9 Arnos Grove Underground Station by Adams, Holden and Pearson (1932)
Image courtesy of
London Passenger Transport Board by Adams, Holden & Pearson (1927)
Grade I listed. Photo courtesy of Wikipedia commons
#11 Woodside Ventilation Station, Mersey Tunnel, Liverpool by Herbert J. Rowse (1925-1934)
Grade II Listed. Image courtesy of Panoramio
#17 Ramsgate Air Port by A. Pleydell-Bouverie (1935)

Closed in 1968 and demolished at some point during the following decade I’m afraid folks.

#18 Liverpool Philharmonic Hall by Herbert J. Rowse (1939)
Photo courtesy of
#19 St Dunstan’s Convalescent and Holiday Home, Rottingdean by Francis Lorne (1938) 
Photo courtesy of
#27 National Provincial Bank, Osterley by W.F.C. Holden (1935)
Photo courtesy of Pete aka DaveyJones144 – a prolific deco hunter!
#29 “Comet” Roadhouse, Near Barnet by E.B. Musman (1936)
Photo courtesy of Mark Amies, his blog post about the roadhouse notified me of the existence of the book.
#36 Church of St Nicholas, Burnage by Welch, Cachemaille-Day & Lander (1932)
Photo courtesy of Sarah aka tintrunk via flickr
#38 Church of St. Saviour, Eltham by Welch, Cachemaille-Day & Lander (1934)
Photo courtesy of Stephen Craven via Geograph
#45 Bedford Girls Modern School by Oswald P. Milne (1938)
Photo courtesy of
#48 Greenford County Secondary Grammar School, Middlesex by H. W. Burchett (1939)

While the school still thrives as Greenford High School, it appears that the original building has either been replaced or modified beyond recognition.

#58 House at fawley, Bucks by Christopher Nicholson
‘Kits Close’, the house was used in the Poirot episode ‘The Murder of Roger Ackroyd’. Photo couresty of Chimi Wiki

This is obviously only a selection of the images featured in the book. There are some interior shots, and some more well known buildings such as Battersea Power Station and The University of London, and others that showcase some more traditional constructions of the era. Should you wish to track down your own copy they seem to be fairly obtainable. Mine only cost a mere 83p + P&P from Abebooks!


Beating The Blackout

Finished in a subtle grey geometric wallpaper, my home study is a calm, child-free environment in which I can focus on my various projects. It was created a couple of years ago from an unloved, seldom used dining room, and has proved to be an excellent investment of DIY graft. So proud was I, that a blog was even penned, concluding with a list of essential items that I felt would further enhance my Shangri-La. One featured ‘want’ was an original 1930’s Anglepoise lamp, the gorgeous semi-industrial design icon that revolutionised desk mounted work lighting. Having decided that one would no doubt surface at a flea fair sooner or later, I didn’t give it much more thought until recently.

Earlier in the summer I took a trip to Redditch to take some snaps for my Streamline Worcestershire book (now with its own dedicated website). It’s a fairly sizable, if somewhat unremarkable, settlement in the North of the county with a strong manufacturing history. On the itinerary was a visit to the former Danilo Cinema (now tastefully revamped as a Wetherspoons), and expeditions to a clutch of industrial buildings including a local landmark called Millsborough House.

The original Millsborough House, built 1912.

The original Millsborough House, built in 1912, was a huge office and factory complex for the well established Redditch firm Herbert Terry & Sons. Initially specialising in the manufacture of needles and fishing tackle, Terry’s quickly diversified into all manner of metal tools, clips and hooks, ultimately becoming best known for their springs. As if all this wasn’t glamorous enough, in 1934 the firm would cement their legacy by entering into a licensing agreement with Bath based designer George Cawardine to manufacture and market his new invention; the Anglepoise Lamp. This revolutionary product, that enabled the user to tailor the position, and angle the beam of light to their needs without moving the base proved to be a huge success. Numerous variations on the theme were developed into a range of lamps of differing sizes and designs for different purposes, while licences were granted to a select few overseas manufacturers.  

1937 advert

The late 1930’s was an exceptionally successful period for the firm, and in 1937 a vast new extension was added to Millsborough House. Large parts of the original factory were replaced (some had been lost during a fire in 1932) in addition to new buildings on a facing site. Apparently designed collaboratively by F.W.B. Yorke (responsible for many large scale constructions in the area) and his son F.R.S. Yorke (a prominent modernist author and architect, later behind the 1950’s expansion of Gatwick Airport), the extension bears no resemblance to the earlier Edwardian buildings whatsoever.


The immense, yet surprisingly slender modernist frontage stands on Millsborough Road. Two towers flank the central triple height section, fenestrated with banks of metal framed windows, each capped with a decorative geometric etched lintel. To the south, an adjoining manufacturing wing has a distinctly different appearance thanks to its glazing and pair of asymmetric pitched roofs. The Northern wing is the most rewarding, with three thin vertical insets, each topped with a small hexagonal window. It then drops down as it corners onto Ipsley Street following similar themes before rising back up to eventually meet the remaining original Edwardian building.

At the outbreak of war Terry’s famously marketed the lamp as a means to ‘Beat the Bogey of Blackout Lighting’, enabling the user to clearly see the task in hand without infringing on regulations after dark. As the war progressed production was altered to aid the war effort, this included the development of a smaller battery powered lamp for the RAF. These were used in a number of applications, most famously in bombers, illuminating the navigators charts and maps while on raids.

1939 advert

Post war production continued, but by the late 1970’s Millsborough House had become outdated and inefficient. The company relocated and areas of the building were demolished and altered to convert it into smaller units. Today it serves multiple businesses in different sectors, and has recently had planning permission granted to convert some of the vacant space into modern warehouse style apartments.

Having concluded it would be in extremely bad form to continue working on a book that featured the Anglepoise factory  without the benefit of my own lamp, I hit eBay. The original production of iconic ‘1227’ lamps ran until 1969 (although it’s back in production again now) encompassing subtle alterations with each generation. Early models are the most sought after, and tend to command high prices. Dating the lamps is relatively easy with various online guides including one on Anglepoises‘ own site. I personally favour the comprehensive guide on 1227, a whole site dedicated to the lamp. Having scoured the listings for a few weeks, I concluded that I was probably going to have to opt for a later generation item rather than hold out for an elusive pre-war model, and ended up buying this sexy number. It’s from the 1948-1960 period, but doesn’t really vary greatly from the original (the larger lamp holder being the most obvious difference). Illuminating it gives my study the instant ‘I’m up to my eyeballs in it and working late to meet a deadline’ look that I was after! An interior design icon that was made locally, who’d have thought.


Heatherdale: A Machine For Living In

“A house is a Machine for living in. A famous French architect said this a few years ago and a great many people did not understand him. They thought he must mean that a house ought to look like a piece of machinery – hard, shining, and certainly uncomfortable to live in.  But he was quite right really. He wasn’t talking about what a house looks like.  He was telling us what it is made for.” Geoffrey Boumphrey 1937

Geoffrey Maxwell Boumphrey (1894-1969) may not be a name many are familiar with, but back in the mid twentieth century it adorned the jacket of many a wholesome coffee table reference book. ‘The Shell Guide to Britain’ series, ‘Engines and How They Work’, ‘Along

Accompanying booklet for the BBC’s Broadcasts to Schools Spring 1937

The Roman Roads’, ‘Sea Farmers’, ‘Down River’ are all titles featuring Boumphrey’s wisdom. For a period he even sat in the editors chair at ’The Listener Magazine’ (Radio Times meets Points of View). ‘Your Home & Mine’, from which the above quote is taken, was an accompanying booklet for the BBC’s Broadcasts to Schools in the Spring of 1937. It aimed to educate children in the development of our homes, from the earliest settlements through to the present day modernist movement, and even speculate as to what changes might occur in the future.

The success of this particular project led him to expand the text into 1938’s full book ‘YOUR HOUSE and MINE’. 250 pages of easy to understand architectural basics charting the rise of the spaces we live in. To illustrate the striking differences between multiple eras of architecture plenty of glossy black and white plates are included. So when it came to showcasing ‘the modern home’, there could be no better example than his own minimalist mansion: Heatherdale.

Geoffrey was a keen out-and-out modernist. So much so that in 1933 he had gone into partnership with fellow author, and stalwart of the twentieth century design reform movement; Philip Morton Shand. Together they founded Finmar, importers of Finnish architect Alvar Aalto‘s groundbreaking pressed plywood furniture. Boumphrey waxes lyrical about the benefits of ply in YHaM: “Plywood never shrinks and so does not need to be held in a grooved panel, a form of construction that was invented purely to allow for the shrinkage in solid wood… Thick plywood can be built up of as many as thirteen laminations, and designers realised that they might use this new unshrinkable wood in a new way. Why should not a whole carcass be built of sheets of plywood, stiffened internally with battens where needed?”. He goes on at some length on this subject including photographs of items of furniture from his own abode.

“A Luxuious Modern Armchair” from Your House and Mine

Presumably looking for the perfect setting to showcase Finmar’s latest imports, in 1935 Geoffrey, with the help of consultant architect F.R.S. Yorke (one of the most celebrated modernist British architects of this period) set to work designing his own streamline masterpiece.

Axonometric Diagram by Nikoulaus Pevsner from Pevsner Architectural Guides: Worcestershire

Completed in 1937, Heatherdale was Geoffrey’s home for about 10 years before he moved on. At some point, presumably fairly early on in its life, the name was changed to Conigree and now has a covenant preventing it from ever being called Heatherdale again. The house still stands and I was lucky enough to recently be shown around it by its fifth and current custodians.

Situated on the top of a hill in Bredon, Conigree overlooks the Avon and its surrounding common land.  Looking West the views stretch almost as far as the eye can see with the Malvern Hills sitting proudly on the horizon. This exposed location works both ways, as the house is visible to passers by from miles around (you can clearly see it while travelling up the M5, look East between junctions 8 & 9, you can’t miss it).

Conigree in 2016

It’s an imposing robust property with a flat roof. This comes as no surprise as again, Geoffrey talks enthusiastically about the benefits of flat roofs in ‘Your House and Mine’. “There is nothing experimental about flat roofs, there are examples up and down the country that have needed no repair for over 100 years. But it is only within the last few years they have become cheap as well as reliable”. He talks about the reduced stress on the walls, the option of overhead natural lighting, easy maintenance, and reduction of the ‘over turning effect of wind’.  “A flat roof gives the owner an extension to his garden, where he and his family may sunbathe, play or rest without being overlooked. In the summer he can sleep out there, secure from interruptions”. 

There are no fancy curves or towers that often feature in 1930s moderne houses, just clean lines and straight edges. Laid out in an L shape, it originally featured two single story sections at either end with tubular railings. Black metal framed ‘Crittal’ windows contrasted the smooth white render. Render that was unfortunately stripped off in the 1950’s exposing the bare bricks. Then followed a spell in pink, and then green masonry paint (what where they thinking?!). The current owners painted it cream in the mid 1990’s, but are considering a return to the pale render of its heyday.

While it’s clearly the same property Boumphrey designed in the ‘30’s, changes to its layout have taken place. The single story North balcony has been lost in a second floor extension, while a kitchen extension has been added in a matching style to the West. A further section has been added to the Northern single story area, but doesn’t feature railings. A modern conservatory also sits on the West side which was added a few years back to replace a crumbling mid-twentieth century lean-to.

The plot has also shrunk over the years with a row of bungalows sat in what was originally the lower reaches of the garden. Apparently responsibility for this is shared among the previous owners, each building a couple more to sell off during their tenure.

The most noticeable change on the exterior is the lack of original windows. Modern UPVC double glazing may add thermal efficiency and ease of maintenance, but fail to create the charm of the original metal frame casements.

img_0743Inside Conigree is a modern family home with little sign of its minimalist past. The original reinforced concrete staircase with tubular banister, some internal doors, and the fitted wardrobe and dressing table photographed in YHaM (now painted white with different handles) are the only original features remaining. That said, we can’t all live in museums, and it’s still a lovely space to be in. Should a future owner wish to revert to Geoffrey’s vision of clean smooth lines and ply, it could easily be done.

I’d like to say a huge thanks to current owners Roger & Di for taking time out of their Sunday afternoon to show me around and let me take photographs for my Streamline Worcestershire project.