Remembering the Fallen – Pre-War ODEONs Continued

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In my last post, I celebrated the surviving pre-war ODEONs that still operate as cinemas. It therefore seems appropriate, to follow it up with a short tribute to those less fortunate examples of the chain’s rapid 1930s expansion. As mentioned, over 80 of the 140 buildings, commissioned by the ODEON chain have since seen demolition. It would perhaps come as no surprise that many would close, given the onslaught of challenges all early cinemas faced in the second half of the century. The rise of television, video and other forms of home entertainment, combined with new technically superior multiplexes, rendered many pre-war cinemas obsolete by the 1970s. In addition to this, ODEON’s rapid, and at times apparently haphazard expansion, created unnecessary challenges from the word go. The visionary founder Oscar Deutsch was clearly a very astute and unbelievably driven businessman, but appeared to have a weakness for acquiring ‘bargain’ sites for construction. This ultimately led to a raft of ‘super cinemas’ opening in areas, either with an insufficient population to sustain such large enterprises, or where there was a saturation of cinemas already (in a handful of cases, even competing directly with his own!).

Nevertheless, many have been lost, and in the absence of a comprehensive series of blue plaques commemorating their sites (are there any?), it seems fitting to single out a few examples (I’ve chosen 8 personal favourites), give a brief overview, and show you what was built in their place.

Worthing

On opening in March 1934, the Worthing ODEON was one of the largest and most expensive builds the chain had commissioned to date, costing double that of the smaller venues. Its appearance (like South Harrow the previous year), was a leap forward in British cinema design, pairing a prominent modernist tower with a curved streamline café wing, features, that would become regular elements of the ODEON circuit style going forward. The tower itself boasted an illuminated clock, 8ft across, spelling ODEON THEATRE.

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Worthing ODEON (1934) by Whinney, Son & Austin Hall. Image Historic England

Despite stiff competition from three earlier town centre theatres, in addition to the recently opened Plaza, and the nearby Lancing ODEON, Worthing was a huge success for many years. The 1970s saw multiplexing of the auditorium, splitting it into three. Despite sustained popularity, it was closed in 1986 for redevelopment, but was swiftly given grade II listed status by Historic England. A legal battle followed, with the developers eventually claiming victory. The building was demolished in late 1987 and Montague Shopping Centre erected on the site.

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Montague Shopping Centre (1987), Worthing. Image Google Street View

Tolworth

Tolworth was one of several early small venues (or village hall ODEONs as I like to call them), built to modest plans. Designed by Yates, Cook & Darbyshire, the cinema was built on a greenfield site, with no obvious demand for such a development. Allen Eyles’ book on the chain reports that, in these early years there were numerous jokes in circulation, ridiculing Oscar for throwing up cinemas in the most unconventional rural locations.

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Tolworth ODEON (1934) by Yates, Cook & Darbyshire. Image Historic England. 

It only lasted until 1961, when it was demolished and replaced with Tolworth Tower, a 22 storey mixed use tower designed by Richard Seifert (completed in 1964). The area was clearly not so rural by this point!

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Tolworth Tower (1964) by Richard Seifert. Image Google Street View.

Surbiton

The Surbiton ODEON, another example from 1934, was unlike anything else in the chain, and was almost certainly a ‘take over’ project. Built as a theatre, it featured a 12ft deep stage, several dressing rooms, a band room, and lift in the orchestra pit, none of which were standard cinema fare! Both architect, Joseph Hall, and interior designers Mollo & Egan, also had no previous connection with the chain, although they would go on to do further work for Oscar. It was a striking building, both externally and internally, with a curious blend of geometric patterns and semi-abstract vine murals in the foyer. In addition to the tall angular corner windows on either flank of the façade, the canopy sported a huge ODEON sign in a significantly different typeface to the usual octagonal lettering.

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Surbiton ODEON (1934) by Joseph Hall. Image Historic England

Built less than a mile from the Kingston ODEON (1933, also now gone), Surbiton was always going to prove challenging to remain viable in the long-term. Nevertheless, it stayed open until 1975, when it was reborn as a carpet showroom. B&Q took over custodianship in 1977, giving DIYers a dose of Art Deco style with every visit for 20 years. Sadly, in 1998 it was demolished and replaced with a Waitrose supermarket, built in a cinema-esque style. The flats either side, contemporary to the cinema, remain.

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Waitrose Surbiton (1998). Image Google Street View

Chingford

Of the many designs realised in this fruitful period, Andrew Mather’s concept for Chingford is surely one of the most unique. The almost cathedral-like exterior possessed a dramatic vertical emphasis, clad in grey & cream terracotta with stylised detailing. Two carved figures adorned the top of the tower, which for my money, looks to be heavily influenced by the Manhattan architecture of the period. Unfortunately, the interior was less inspiring, and far more ‘old fashioned’ than many of Mather’s other examples for the chain.

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Chingford ODEON (1935) by Andrew Mather. Image Historic England

After being sold to Classic cinemas in 1967, it was ultimately closed in 1972 and demolished to make way for a mixed retail and residential block. Poundstretcher & PetHut currently occupy the site.

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6-8 Cherrydown Avenue, Chingford. Image Google Streetview

Bury

Opening on November 16th 1936, Bury ODEON was the only modern cinema in the Lancashire town, and was the chain’s first entirely new cinema in the Manchester area. Its boxy faience clad exterior may not have had the finesse of examples like Chingford, but its striking minimal nature must have caused quite a stir in this traditional industrial town.

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Bury ODEON (1936) by Harry Weedon & P. J. Price. Image Historic England

After closing in 1981, the building was used as a nightclub for many years, before being left empty. It was eventually demolished in 2013. As of June 2016, the site was still undeveloped, but directly opposite is a new (2010) VUE multiplex and shopping centre, the exterior of which was clearly influenced by its grandparent.

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VUE Multiplex, Bury (2010). Image Google Street View

Penge

Opening on 31st July 1937, just five days after, and 1 ½ miles from South Norwood ODEON, Penge was one of a number in the year to feature large quantities of opaque glass on the frontage. Two illuminated towers capped with flag poles stood at either end, adding a considerable dramatic effect.

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Penge ODEON (1937) by Andrew Mather. Image Historic England

Closing in 1976, it saw out the remainder of the 70s and 80s as a bingo hall before shutting for good in 1990. 1994 saw a Wetherspoon’s pub, ‘The Moon & Stars’ constructed on the site. It’s worth noting that whatever opinions you have of them, the J. D. Wetherspoon group have converted a number of former cinemas into public houses in recent years, serving as welcome custodians to these old hulks. It’s only a shame that this wasn’t the mind-set when Penge met the demolition ball.

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The Moon & Stars Pub, Penge (1994). Image Google Street View 

Canning Town

The Canning Town ODEON has the dubious accolade of having the shortest lifespan of any of the chain’s pre-war constructions. Opening behind schedule in May 1939, Keith P. Roberts’ huge 2240 seater made excellent use of an awkwardly shaped island site, with a curved single height entrance leading to a huge foyer bathed in natural light. The exterior was clad predominantly in cream faience, with a tall ventilation fin capped with a flag pole, towering above the main structure.

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Canning Town ODEON (1939) by Keith P. Roberts. Image Historic England

Situated near the docks, as it was, Canning Town was subjected to a barrage of bombings during the Blitz. The cinema was no exception, being struck on May 11th 1941, and never reopening. The site wasn’t actually fully cleared until 1970, with a block of flats named ODEON Court going up in its place.

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ODEON COURT, Canning Town (1970). Image Google Street View

Hendon

Opening just four days before the country went to war, Hendon was the last new ODEON to be completed until 1950. Designed by Robert Bullivant, the facing was done entirely in brick, a medium put to successful use in Chester & York, but still an unusual choice for the chain (in this case, it was to keep costs down). Smaller than most of the period, featuring a slab tower, curved entrance with splayed fins, and a streamline corner punctured with porthole windows, it was an undeniably pretty building. Unfortunately, the timing of launch was dreadful, with only a fraction of capacity attending the gala launch, buffet and speeches. Five days later, the government approved emergency measures to close every cinema in the country on safety grounds (although this was lifted a short time later).

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Hendon (1939) by Robert Bullivant. Image Historic England

Hendon survived unmodified and un-multiplexed until it closed in 1979. It was demolished in 1981 to make way for sheltered accommodation.

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Hendon, apartments built 1981. Image Google Street View

The information used to write this post was compiled using a combination of sources including Allen Eyles’ indispensable book ‘ODEON Cinemas 1: Oscar Deutsch Entertains Our Nation’, the excellent Cinema Treasures website, and as always, Google.

If you appreciate this architecture of this period (and are familiar with Worcestershire & the West Midlands), you might well enjoy my new book ‘Streamline Worcestershire’. More information at www.streamlineworcestershire.com

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Survivors – The Remaining Pre-War ODEON Cinemas.

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WESTON-SUPER-MARE (1935) by Thomas Cecil Howett. Photo: Philip Butler 2017

Amongst the wealth of ground-breaking architecture that saw construction across these isles during the 1930s, the cinema must surely be considered to have had the greatest impact. No other type of building could have managed to get away with imposing such outlandish, extravagant and radical exteriors on the average British high street. Whether it was the appeal of the escapism they offered, the allure of the gorgeous charismatic stars projected on the screen, or the fashionable kudos these places bestowed on the locality, they won over both town planners and punters a-like, springing up in their 100s throughout the decade.

Of all the operators, and there were many, ODEON is undoubtedly the chain whose legacy is most enviable. A chain that not only managed to tick all the technical boxes required for a great cinema, but whose founder commissioned some of the most unbelievably modern, daring, and unusual structures ever seen in this country.

The first ODEON opened in 1930 in the Perry Barr area of Birmingham. Designed by Stanley A. Griffiths & Horace G. Bradley, it had a fashionable bright white exterior in a Moorish style, with an elaborate slightly unorthodox interior. Further openings in subsequent years, showed no obvious house style, and arguably little genuine flair, until construction of South Harrow in 1933.

 

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South Harrow (1933) by A. P. Starkey. Demolished 1972. Image Historic England

 

This bold  multipurpose block clad in buff faience tiles, featured integrated retail units and a recessed front wall, up-lit from the entrance canopy. It perhaps doesn’t look that spectacular in light of later designs, but South Harrow set a new benchmark in British cinema design, and paved the way for the ODEON chain’s modern house style.

Despite this early promise,  it would take the appointment of the Birmingham based Harry Weedon Partnership in 1934 to achieve a more consistent approach to the design of the rapidly expanding circuit. For the remainder of the decade, all designs would go through Weedon in one form or another, ultimately yielding a whole estate of masterpieces.

I’ve become somewhat obsessed with the brand of late, and decided to investigate and catalogue a few statistics covering what was built, and what remains in 2017. Below follows a summary of the findings.

Between 1930 & 1939, ODEON opened 258 cinemas (a few early ones didn’t bear the brand name at first, but later adopted it). Of these, 140 were new, purpose built venues, whilst the others consisted of older cinemas and theatres, benefitting from a revamp. From the 140, 83 have been demolished, and a further 7 only have elements remaining; façade, foyer or adjoining café still present, whilst the rest is lost.

That leaves 50 surviving buildings, only 19 of which are still open as cinemas in one capacity or another, the remainder being used as bingo halls, churches, nightclubs, conference centres and retail outlets. It’s also worth noting a further 4 were built, but not opened until after the war (2 survive, 1 as a cinema).

So where are these miraculous survivors I hear you ask? Cue the Led Zeppelin sound bed, here’s the countdown in chronological order, complete with grainy period shots, of all those still functioning as cinemas (images copyright Historic England, but via the excellent Cinema Treasures website).…

Barnet

BARNET (1935) by Edgar J Simmons

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WESTON SUPER MARE (1935) by Thomas Cecil Howett

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FAVERSHAM (1936) by Andrew Mather

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SCARBOROUGH (1936) by Bullivant, Weedon, Clavering

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SUTTON COLDFIELD (1936) by Harry Weedon & W. Calder Robson

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BRIDGWATER (1936) by Thomas Cecil Howett

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MUSWELL HILL (1936) by George Coles

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BROMLEY (1936) by George Coles

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HARROGATE (1936) by Harry Weedon & W. Calder Robson – yes, it’s the same design as Sutton Coldfield

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CHESTER (1936) Harry Weedon & Robert Bullivant

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STAFFORD (1936) Roland Satchwell

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SITTINGBOURNE (1937) by F. C. Mitchell

Odeon, Blossom Street, York, Yorkshire

YORK (1937) by Harry Weedon & Robert Bullivant

exeter

 by Harry Weedon & Robert Bullivant

swiss cottage

SWISS COTTAGE (1937) by Basil Herring & Harry Weedon

leicester square

LEICESTER SQUARE (1937) by Andrew Mather & Harry Weedon

bristol

BRISTOL (1938) by Thomas Cecil Howett

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BARKING (1938) by Andrew Mather

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AYR (1938) by Andrew Mather

Bonus ODEON

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WORCESTER (1939, but didn’t open until 1950) by Robert Bullivant

Use them or lose them folks. Support your local original ODEON cinemas (not all are still run by the chain, but all still show films) while you can. Even if the movie is naff, you can sit back and soak up the history!

The statistics used in this post were compiled using a combination of information from Allen Eyles excellent book ‘Odeon Cinemas 1: Oscar Deutsch Entertains Our Nation’, the Cinema Treasures website, and Google.

If you appreciate this era of architecture (and live in or are familiar with Worcestershire & the West Midlands), you might well enjoy my new book ‘Streamline Worcestershire’. More information at www.streamlineworcestershire.com

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Streamline Worcestershire – Adventures With The Printed Page

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Blakedown Rough (1934)

14 months ago, I assigned myself the task of researching and photographing of all of the surviving Art Deco and early modernist architecture in my home county of Worcestershire. The resulting images would then be compiled together into a booklet of some kind, with a few copies printed up for posterity. A nice straightforward achievable project to occupy myself with, when the time presented itself.

At this point my ‘green-horn’ credentials became blindingly obvious. Not only did I underestimate how much work is involved in such a project, but I forgot how obsessive and single-minded I become, once committed to something. And so, for over a year, I devoted pretty much all my spare time, outside of work and family, to what became Streamline Worcestershire.

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Northwick, Worcester (1938)

Travelling all over, including areas that were once, but are no longer part of Worcestershire, I visited factories, offices, churches, private homes, shops, cinemas, swimming pools, garages, pubs, hotels, a transmitting centre, a bus stop, a zoo and a water tower. I’ve marvelled at what the county has to offer, with the number, diversity and quality of applicable candidates greatly exceeding my original expectations. Hours vanished while rolling through microfilm at the city library, pouring over stacks of local history books, and scouring the internet for elusive pieces of information. My limited photography skills have also been put to the test, shooting in all manner of weather and light conditions, with the removal of unwanted cars via Photoshop, now a particular speciality. Now this may all sound rather tame, driving to Redditch on a rainy Sunday to find a needle factory not being that impressive, but within my fairly sheltered existence, this was more akin to a Tolkienesque quest!

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Former Co-Operative Department Store, Dudley (1939)

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Regal, Tenbury Wells (1937)

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Austin House, Worcester (1939)

After the seemingly endless process of proofreading and fine tuning for print, the manuscript was eventually completed a few weeks back, with a bound proof dropping through my letterbox today (via the excellent bookprintinguk). The little booklet I originally envisioned, has grown to a weighty 168 page full colour hardback tome (not quite ‘coffee table’ specification, but substantial nonetheless).

I can’t quite explain the strange elation, of holding, and leafing through one’s debut printed offering for the first time, it is somewhat unreal. I also get a perverse sense of satisfaction in having executed publication following a DIY punk ethic, taking me back to an industrious youth spent recording and self-releasing material in various noisy bands.    

Evidently, the book is of fairly niche interest, but I’ve received such a wave of positive feedback concerning the project since its inception, I suspect that I’m not the only one, mesmerised by the lesser celebrated structures of this golden age of design.

‘STREAMLINE WORCESTERSHIRE – DISCOVERING THE ART DECO & INTER-WAR MODERNIST ARCHITECTURE OF THE COUNTY’ is a limited print run of 258 copies (the number of ODEON cinemas opened in the UK during founder, Oscar Deutsch’s, lifetime). Available direct here, via Amazon, and through a number of local retailers. OUT NOW. See www.streamlineworcestershire.com for more information.

covercontentsinside2inside1A larger selection of images from the book are being featured as part of an ongoing series on the Art Deco Magpie Instagram page #streamlineworcestershire

 

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Assets or Eyesores? Plymouth’s Art Deco Survivors

 

Old Town Street and Spooner's Corner after the Blitz in 1941.

Plymouth 1941 via cornwall24.net

 

The historic naval city of Plymouth is said to have been one of, if not THE worst, victims of bombing in this country during WWII. In an attempt to obliterate the Royal Docklands at HMRN Davenport, the Luftwaffe relentlessly targeted the area between 1940 and 1944, reducing large areas of Britain’s ‘Ocean City’ to rubble, and taking the lives of 1172 civilians.

Plans for redevelopment were drawn up even before the conflict had concluded, with a bold vision of low density suburban accommodation, paired with a modern zonal city centre. Much of what hadn’t been destroyed by the raids, was cleared to deliver a blank canvas to build from. The result was a coordinated, proportioned, and well laid out city centre fit for the optimistic post-war era, and it still stacks up pretty well to this day.

But what of those pieces of architecture that escaped the explosives and bulldozers? When examples of Plymouth’s pre-war architecture come under threat from development, should their remarkable escape be taken into account, or should sentimentality be put to one side in the name of progress? Personally speaking, I’m too romantically involved with nostalgia to give a sensible unbiased answer, but finding myself in the city with some time to spare, I decided to hunt down some examples of Plymouths Art Deco survivors, several of which are currently under threat.

The Royal Cinema

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Opening in July 1938, the Royal Cinema was one of eight city picture houses operating at the outbreak of war, and is the only one still showing films today. Built by the ABC chain, and designed by their in-house architect William Riddle Glen, it possesses a rather odd appearance from certain angles. Approach from the east and the slab-like reconstituted stone façade smoothly dovetails into a curved corner wing (currently painted sky blue), wrapping around the side of the building. Approach from the west however, and the impression is given of said façade, being simply stuck on to the front of the foyer, overhanging the edges in a rather awkward fashion. Since the ‘90’s, a bingo hall has been present in the stalls area, it’s shabby separate entrance lurks off to one side, while the remaining multiplexed circle continues functioning as a cinema (run by the independent REEL chain). Love it or loathe it, the ensemble is an unmistakable slice of Art Deco architecture, and is adored by passionate local film-goers and nostalgic dreamers alike.

Despite this, last year the owners of the site unveiled plans to demolish the building, replacing it with student accommodation. A hard-fought campaign ensued, including a petition with over 5000 signatures supporting retention of the venue. Several attempts have been made to list the cinema over the years, but its interior is too heavily altered to warrant sufficient merit with Historic England. The most recent development in the saga involved the local council listing the building as a community asset, ensuring the public are awarded the right to buy, if the freehold is put on the market. I’ll be following developments closely….

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Gaumont Palace

A mere shuffle from The Royal, is the former Gaumont Palace, a much grander structure, also currently in a state of limbo.  Opening in 1931 on the site of an earlier theatre, the Gaumont was the creation of West Country architects Percy Bartlett and William Henry Watkins. Taken over by the ODEON chain in the early 1960s, it was subdivided to include a dance hall, before morphing into a roller disco in 1980 (now there’s a phrase I wish I got to type more often!), seeing out its final days as a nightclub (closing in 2013).

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While standing in front of its impressive brick and stone façade, a couple scurried up to me, grinning like Cheshire cats. “Are you from GOD TV”? they asked. When my nonsensical bumbling reply concluded with a “no”, they proceeded to fill me in. Both, it seemed, had ‘wasted’ much of their youth within the building, indulging in one euphoric drug addled rave after another, only later to be saved by the grace of our good lord. God then shone his yellow face upon the tired old Gaumont, forseeing a £multi-million restoration to transform the site into a state of the art prayer centre and studio for the aforementioned Christian channel. Now this all sounds very promising indeed, a number of old cinemas nationwide have been reborn as churches, many receiving a full restoration in the process, but dig a little deeper and concerns start to arise. The initial completion date was set for 2014, then postponed until 2015, before the married directors of GOD TV got themselves caught up in an infidelity scandal. Following a resignation of one, due to “moral failure”, the project is reported to continue with a 2020 launch date. God himself is apparently funding the work, estimated to be between £5-7 million, but donations are, of course, always welcome. Rather worryingly though, no work has apparently taken place to date, not a jot, and the building looks in a rough state. I would be delighted if the scheme came to fruition, but I’m not holding my breath.




Colin Campbell House
Colin Campbell Court, adjacent to the main city shopping area, is a sizable parking lot, surround by a series of run down 1960’s retail and office units. Slap bang in the middle, at a rather awkward angle, stands a potential stunner: Colin Campbell House. Built by E. G. Catchpole, this streamline beauty was constructed in 1938 as a garage and showroom for the Austin Motor Company. They must have been planning on shifting a fair few vehicles, as this four storey complex far outweighs any similar dealerships I’ve encountered from the period. Information is sketchy, and I’ve not been able to uncover how long it fulfilled its original purpose, but in recent years it has served as a Mothercare, Habitat, Chinese supermarket, and now, a discount furniture outlet.

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In 2001, an unsuccessful attempt was made to list the building by C20th society, but there are rumblings of second application being put together. The present external condition is utterly depressing, peeling paint, crumbling render, rusting windows, and naff adverts all insult the heritage of the place. A faded Habitat sign (closed in 2011 I believe) protrudes from the pavement, like some aged sentry trying to trick the unsuspecting shopper. Currently open as CFS (not D), only the first two floors are accessible to the public (so I’m told, I didn’t have enough time to explore), and all original internal features have either been covered up or removed.

Having originally signaled it was to be demolished as part of a redevelopment of the whole site, the local council later bowed to public pressure, calling for the building to be retained in the plans. This has subsequently been modified from a requirement, to a merely a suggestion, and the site remains available, should a suitable developer be willing to take it on.

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Tinside Lido

Having plumbed the depths of Plymouth’s neglected inter-war structures, I was keen to leave the place on a high by calling in on Ocean City’s crowing jewel, the grade II* listed Tinside Lido. Designed by borough engineer J Wibberly in 1935, Tinside was built in the dream situation for any outdoor pool: on the coast. The large circular pool is literally built into the sea, a swimmable pier if you like. Closed in 1992 due to falling numbers, it remained empty for a decade, before being fully restored, reopening in 2005.

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Plans for a swim were put on hold due to the unseasonably cold, windy and wet conditions, but the team were kind enough to let me look around and take some photos.

Entering from the cliff top level, one walks down a sloping covered parade overlooking the pool. A spiral staircase takes you down one storey to the entrance (unless you take the lift from the coast road, it’s a fully accessible pool). After negotiating your way in by purchasing a keyring and post card, you’re met with the most gorgeous stairwell. Lit from above, and in front, by glass bricks, one is transported into the 1930’s by an abundance of period features including azure tiles with red hgihlights, stylised signage, and a sleek bronze banister with geometric railings. I wasn’t allowed into the changing rooms with my camera (why ever not?), but I hear they’re equally special. 




Emerging on the ground floor to the sound of roaring waves, you’re met with a sizable area for sun lounging, a raised walkway, where one might pause, gazing out to the ocean liners yonder, and a glorious fountain in the centre of the pool. The head life guard insisted on cranking said fountain up to maximum, before I commenced shooting, a move that rather perplexed the one swimmer present, who was confined to a lane running right past the darn thing! I just chuckled and adjusted my camera.
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Despite the obvious limitation of appeal thanks to the unpredictable British weather, Tinside remains one of Plymouth’s key tourist attractions, drawing in huge numbers each year. With the potential possessed by the other survivors, a real possibility of a 30’s heritage trail, or Art Deco quarter, presents itself. As always though, the small issues of funding and feasibility will probably be the deal breakers. The appetite amongst the community for retention, restoration, and reuse certainly appears to be ravenous though, and god’ll presumably lend a hand with painting a few walls too. Ocean City might well relive the Jazz Age once again!

Plymouth Harbour, Devon. Vintage BR(WR) Travel poster by Harry R

 

For further information and updates, please visit the following links:

70 images of Plymouth during the Blitz with editorial: http://www.plymouthherald.co.uk/plymouth-blitz/story-28762897-detail/story.html

Royal/Reel Cinema: https://www.change.org/p/plymouth-city-council-save-the-reel-cinema-in-plymouth

Gaumount Palace: no dedicated site on the refurbishment, but if desperate… https://www.god.tv

Colin Cambell House: https://www.facebook.com/SAVE-Colin-Campbell-House-589415457874302/

Tinside Lido: https://www.everyoneactive.com/centre/tinside-lido/

 

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Down in a Tube Station at Midday – Charles Holden’s Northern Piccadilly Line Masterpieces

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“Why are you all taking photos?… It’s just a station!” barks a baffled commuter, as she carves through our group. It’s understandable I suppose. Millions use London’s underground tube network on a daily basis, reducing the impact of even the most awe inspiring stations to mere pieces of urban monotony, each to be navigated as swiftly and painlessly as possible. For those with open eyes and time to spare however, a multitude of treasures await. For this wasn’t ‘just a station’, it was Arnos Grove, one of Charles Holden’s Piccadilly Line masterpieces.

Taking a 2 1/2 hour rail journey to the big smoke, purely to walk around a selection of tube stations is probably not most people’s idea of an enjoyable Saturday out. But I can’t deny it, I’d been looking forward to this for some time. Oyster in hand, and camera on back, I set out to meet up with Modernism in Metro-land’s Josh, who would guide myself and 24 other architecture, transport and history aficionados, through some of the most iconic English tube stations ever built.

There’s a wealth of information out there on Charles Holden’s work and career, both in printed and digital form, so I’ll refrain from simply regurgitating it all here. To briefly summarise though, in collaboration with Frank Pick, the visionary managing director of the Underground during the inter-war years, Holden introduced modernism to the tube’s built environment. This initially manifested itself through facelifts of existing stations, but ultimately lead to the design of a whole family of structures for the rapidly expanding ‘metro-land’ public transport infrastructure.

Todays tour showcased the final seven stops on the northern arm of the Piccadilly Line, all completed between September 1932 and July 1933 (several of which opened simultaneously). I’ll give brief overviews of each station, and share some choice shots, although the often busy locations and limited time in each, resulted in challenging photographic conditions (at least, that’s my excuse!).

Turnpike Lane

Featuring a large sunken ticket hall set beneath a cubic street level pavilion, Turnpike Lane was apparently Holden’s favourite station. It’s beauty lies in the simplicity of the design, essentially a box with a rectangular ventilation tower, generously fenestrated by huge banks of metal framed windows. Direct access into the station is via two stairways, passing beneath overhanging curved canopies on entry and exit. Originally  part of a civic hub, with co-ordinated bus and tram stations, Turnpike was listed in 1994, years after the trams had ceased to run, and their shelters been demolished. Retail and passenger facilities occupy further buildings, all constructed in much the same style, albeit, rather more curvaceous in form.

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Wood Green

Next stop up the line is Wood Green, the only station in this particular run that isn’t a detached building. Its sweeping façade bridges the gap between two C19th buildings, on a corner of a busy intersection. Two ventilation turrets rise up on each corner, originally equal in height, although one has since been extended. Internally many of the original features have long since been removed, some replaced with replicas, others simply falling victim to modernisation. Every station also features bespoke ventilation grilles designed by Harold Stable, each depicting a historical aspect of the site – in this case deer and wildfowl.

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Bounds Green

Not every ‘Holden station’ was designed in detail by the man himself, with such a rapid expansion program it simply wouldn’t have been possible. All, I believe were based on concepts and sketches by Holden, that once approved by Pick, would be passed on to other architects to develop and draw up the final plans. Bounds Green is one such example, and is credited to Charles James.

It is unique in the network, being the only station to boast an octagonal ticket hall. Said to be beneficial by, “allowing greater expanses of window to be inserted into the splayed corners”, but more importantly, it just looks pretty darn sexy. Two small kiosks are attached to each outer wall of the station, their curved frontages neatly emerging from the sharp geometric form of the parent building.

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Arnos Grove

After a vigorous stroll from Bounds Green (via the delightful Grade II listed Bowes Road Pool & Library), we approach one of the two undeniable architectural icons on this stretch of track; Arnos Grove.

Inspired by the work of Swedish architect Gunnar Aspland, Holden incorporated elements from his design for Stockholm City Library into Arnos Grove. The striking ‘drum on a box’ form of the ticket hall is a triumph of minimalist construction. Something that a passing cyclist felt the need to emphasise by yelling “cylindrical drum” at Josh as he peddled past. The drum in question is huge, towering over the booking hall with one central column supporting its lid-like roof. The original ticket booth (or ‘passometer’) nestles at the base, and now serves as a small museum to the station. Period phone booths, restored some years ago, also remain in situ, their oak by-fold doors securing further exhibits on the buildings history.

Despite its eye catching appearance, Arnos Grove was apparently Frank Pick’s least favourite design, and was only was only approved after a series of drawn out persuasive discussions.

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Southgate

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Arriving by train into Southgate you are greeted in a wonderful subterranean environment, illuminated in a warm glow by the original bronze up-lighters. The ticket hall appears to be of similar design to Arnos Grove, only with a considerably lower ceiling. It’s only once you’ve exited and glanced behind you that the penny drops. There’s really no other way I can think to describe it other than a flying saucer. I tend to associate the golden age of science fiction with the atomic era of the late 1950’s and 1960’s, but clearly Holden was way ahead of the curve.

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Opening in March 1933, this giant circular station, features a large overhanging canopy, offering weather protection to those window shoppers passing the numerous integrated kiosks. A smaller central cylinder rises up, with continuous glazing following the whole circumference. On top, an illuminating antenna-like mast crowns the fallen UFO, luring the humanoids in.

Like Turnpike Lane, Southgate is a civic hub, with co-ordinated bus shelters and community facilities, all of which neatly circle the mothership.

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Oakwood

After the giddy heights of the last three stations, Oakwood (originally Enfield West) is perhaps a little disappointing externally. Another C. H. James building, it follows a fairly simple ‘Sudbury Box’ design (Sudbury Town being the first of several stations to be built in this style). Things improve internally, with a huge double height ticket hall bathed in natural light, two original ticket booths, a wonderful curved shop, and a reinforced concrete ceiling reminiscent of the unhealthy potato grids I occasionally feed my kids.

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Cockfosters

The terminus on this stretch of line is more intriguing than first impressions would have you believe. At street level, a fairly simple entry building graced with two stumpy towers greets the pedestrian, while a streamlined bus shelter with duel descending stairwells, is present opposite. Had the original plans been realised, the main building would be bookend by two substantial integrated office blocks, and perhaps even a cinema. Ultimately, these were never built, but the true achievement becomes apparent as you descend below ground.

A huge reinforced concrete hanger covers the three platforms extending from the ticket hall. Daylight streams in from overhead skylights, fortified with light from electric globes dangling from the heavens. Could this be the birth of Brutalism in England? I’m not sure, but its a beautiful church-like environment, and a fitting end to marvellous collection of transport structures. Subtle yet grand, minimal yet alive, functional yet beautiful.

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If this type of tomfoolery is up your street, I’d highly recommend getting yourself booked onto a future Modernism in Metro-land tour. They are fairly infrequent, and sell out quickly, but are well worth getting involved with. Josh also writes regular articles on his site about… well, Modernism in Metro-land, so do have a read.

For some beautiful period photographs and detailed information on Charles Holden’s work with the London Underground get yourself a copy of ‘Bright Underground Spaces’ by David Lawrence. A gorgeous hardback bible, suitable for coffee tables and bookcases alike.

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The Queen Mary Takes Me: A Tribute to Craig Anderson

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Blogging is a fascinating phenomenon. WordPress alone is said to be home to over 80 million posts a month, with authors busy hammering out articles on pretty much anything you can possibly imagine. I follow a small collection of diverse sites, all of which I thoroughly enjoy, even if I am guilty of being a bit light on leaving comments. There is however, one blog in particular, that has affected me more than most, and I wanted to write a short tribute to it, and more specifically, it’s author.

Being a collector of inter-war design and paraphernalia, I was delighted when I first stumbled across The Queen Mary Takes Me. Written by true romantic and British expat Craig Anderson, the site chronicles his search for original items from the RMS Queen Mary Cruise Liner in its pre-war heyday. In his own words…

 “The Queen Mary has special place in my heart, I proposed to my wife on board her and since then we’ve shared many important moments on board. Since we live far away from her we have found that collecting, restoring and sharing her furniture and fittings is our way of keeping her history alive and furthering her connection to anyone who loves and appreciates ocean liners, passenger ships and the Golden Age of Travel.”

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Craig & Shara Anderson

Most of the interior decor was stripped or covered over when the ship was requisitioned during the war. The exterior was painted grey, and the beautiful pieces of furniture, fabric, carpets, china, objet d’art, and general decor was stored, with some of it being sold off later. Since decommissioning in the late 1960’s, the ship has been used as a permanently moored hotel in Long Beach, California, and has in more recent years been restored back to its late 1930’s glory. Earlier refits however, had led to much of the now dated furniture, finding their way onto the market, to be ultimately scooped up by collectors like Craig.

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Third Class Lounge Table “In my eyes it is hands down the best table from Third Class”.

So long as there was clear provenance, Craig would apparently collect it. Each blog post updated the reader on the latest acquisition, with numerous photos of the piece in question, detailed research, and often period shots of it (or identical items) taken while on the ship, all delivered with an enthusiasm so infectious is practically leapt of the screen. Combined together, it showcased an expanding collection of museum quality pieces that I for one, drooled over the laptop screen at. I distinctly remember my own jubilation at a post relating to a curved veneer waste paper bin, desperate to find another I scoured the internet fruitlessly, seriously pondering the possibility of dabbling in 1930’s cruise liner memorabilia.

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Verandah Grill Vent Cover “art pieces in their own right”

Most bloggers are fairly erratic, with periods of inactivity often followed by a burst of posts. As such, I thought nothing of a gap in Craig’s articles, until an update was posted by his wife Shara in January 2016.

“Many people are aware that Craig Anderson was recently killed in a tragic work accident. 2015 should have been one of the best of our lives as we welcomed a baby boy to our family and we had worked hard towards some wonderful goals (on this blog, with the Queen Mary collection, and in our personal lives), instead it ended in heart break for me and our son as the person we loved the most the world was taken away.”

My limited vocabulary doesn’t even begin to provide me with the words to comment on this utterly tragic turn of events, it’s heartbreaking, he was just 33. I never met Craig, we exchanged a couple of messages, but I can’t help but feel we might of got on pretty darn well, sharing not just our appreciation of 1930’s design, but a love of classic cars (I discovered later) and similar aged children.

Earlier in this week I was researching a recently photographed house for the book I’m working on. The trail led me to the discovery that the original owner, one Captain Herbert Morgan, was a skipper with Cunard White Star. I doubt he piloted RMS Queen Mary, but who knows. I’d like to think Craig would have found this little piece of information to his liking.

I highly recommend you set aside some time to investigate the site soak up the collection, which Shara has vowed to continue with.

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I wish all the best to Shara, little Thomas, and all of his family.

 

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Bingo, Striptease & Jazz; A Short History of Dudley Hippodrome

IMG_1725smAll over Britain countless former cinemas and theatres lay vacant, slowly deteriorating while a decision on their future is debated.  A select few, largely thanks to pockets of enthusiasts and community groups, get rescued from the wrecking ball, restored and preserved for future generations to enjoy. With a professional, creative and passionate approach, many of these glamorous old structures can still successfully be used for their original purpose. Failing this, it’s often viable to sympathetically modify the building to fulfil new functions, without altering the fabric dramatically.

Alas, many don’t get the opportunity to rise from the ashes. It seems a month rarely passes when I don’t read about another former cinema or theatre being torn down to make way for some architecturally bankrupt, get-rich-quick project. Obviously not every example can, or should be preserved. Some, following years of neglect and vandalism, have succumbed to the elements and deteriorated beyond the point of no return. Others, simply don’t possess the architectural merit or viable business solution to make restoration worthwhile. But those that do, those inspiring examples of Britain’s flamboyant theatrical and cinematic heritage, awaiting the chance to illuminate their neon signs again, should surely be awarded the opportunity.

The Hippodrome in Dudley is one such case in point that, thanks to community pressure, has recently been snatched away from the dreaded demolition gangs. Designed by renowned theatre architect Archibald Hurley Robinson, it replaced the Dudley Opera House, a late Victorian building gutted by fire in 1937. The Hippodrome’s giant curvaceous buff-brick frontage stood directly next door to another Robinson building, the more cubic Plaza Cinema, completed two years earlier. This in turn, was adjacent to the Zoo’s main entrance, and directly opposite the stunning 1937 ODEON Cinema. With four dramatic modernist attractions in such close proximity, all on the main drag into town, Dudley must surely have been the envy of its less pioneering Black Country neighbours.

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Plaza & Hippodrome

Completed just prior to Christmas 1938, the Hippodrome threw open its doors with an evening of up-tempo jazz, headlined by the formidable Jack Hylton and his Band. 1939 saw a packed programme of music, theatre and dance, typical of variety theatres during the period. Despite temporary closure during the war, the 1600 seat venue, dubbed ‘The Showplace of the West Midlands’ became a mainstay for major touring theatre and variety performances in the late ‘40s and ‘50s. The annual Christmas pantomime was another big draw, featuring some of the dazzling entertainment stars of the day including Harry Secombe, Derek Roy, Tommy Cooper, Eve Boswell, Beryl Reid and Morecombe & Wise. The golden 1950’s were rounded out with a run of sell out shows by rebellious rock ‘n’ rolling upstart, Cliff Richard.

Dubious management led to a reported decline of quality bookings in the early 1960’s, and with striptease performances and evenings of wrestling not filling the stalls, the Hippodrome changed hands. Re-launching as a casino club, it boasted a combination of bingo during the day, and live performances every night, a format that lasted until 1974, with the late great Roy Orbison, closing out proceedings. From that point on, the Hippodrome concentrated solely on hosting a mixed bill of bingo, bingo and more bingo, a concern that would  actually prove viable for a further 35 years at the venue. Sadly, all good things must come to an end, and in September 2009 the balls would flutter for the last time, as the Hippodrome shut its doors for good.

The Plaza had been demolished in 1997, and thus, plans were made to follow suit with its now decaying neighbour. Had it not been for a group of local enthusiasts led by former college lecturer Geoff Fitzpatrick, this would probably have been the end of the story. The Save Dudley Hippodrome group (later Black Country Hippodrome ltd) collected 35,000 signatures objecting to the demolition of the building, and proposing it be restored and brought back to life in its original guise, a theatre for national and international touring productions.

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Geoff Fitzpatrick – photo: Midlands News Express & Star

Sadly, Geoff passed away in 2014 while the fight with the council was ongoing, but the group he helped form continued their quest, and in July 2016 was granted a five year lease to restore and revive the building. The keys were handed over to chairman, Dr Paul Collins in front of a jubilated crowd at a ceremony on the steps of the boarded up venue in December, and the arduous task of raising funds has now begun.

This short video filmed in 2015 by Dr Collins, though not of very high quality, does show the auditorium intact, complete with decorative plaster mouldings on the side walls, circle and ceiling. Further images taken by volunteers show an Aladdin’s cave of period features retained within the building, all ripe for restoration.

Having visited the site a couple of times recently, I can’t help but comment that the scale of the project is mind boggling. The giant brick complex houses a neat collection of graffiti, rooftop weeds, boarded up windows, leaking guttering and missing down pipes that is not a sight for the feint hearted. Look past its current condition though, and the sheer potential the place possesses is astounding. With its prominent location, excellent access, and ample parking, there is no reason why it couldn’t be run as a successful theatre, and to see this gigantic chunk of jazz age construction glowing with neon again, busy with Black Country crowds, would be truly magical.

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Artistic impression of a renovated Hippodrome, via the friends Facebook page

For further information and updates on the project, please join, follow, like, contribute to the Black Country Hippodrome’s Facebook page here  https://www.facebook.com/groups/25779253540/

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